Unfenced camp rules - Page 3





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  1. #41
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    Default Re: Unfenced camp rules

    Thanks to Stranger for starting this thread and all those who have contributed.

    It has finally persuaded me to swap from a lurker into a poster as about this time next year hope to be close to our first unfenced night in Africa after about 5 years of planning.

    One thing I do a lot (in Europe) at festival-like events is use barrier fencing (e.g. https://www.screwfix.com/p/barrier-f...reen/1096f#_=p ) which has the benefit of stopping folks walking through our encampment. I had thought of doing the same in an unfenced camp to improve the security of our tent - we will be in a ground tent - and figure a small gap between tent & fence (say 1m or less) would be best to try reduce cat/dog/hyena approach. But would welcome the insight of folks with more experience with wild animals whether a fence is a plain bad idea. (And based on my inexperience of unfenced camps in Africa figure it would be presumptuous to suggest the idea in my 1st post on this thread!)

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  3. #42
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    Default Re: Unfenced camp rules

    Unfenced camp guidelines / tips:

    1. Make sure you have plenty of drinking water.
    2. Always leave the vehicle doors unlocked in camp in case you suddenly need to seek refuge from a potentially dangerous animal visitor.
    3. Leave the vehicle seats uncluttered so that you can enter rapidly.
    4. When setting up camp plan so that you feel more secure. Park the vehicle close to the tent and sit at night with the campfire in front of you and the vehicle screening your back.
    5. Do not fall asleep in your chair in camp, especially an unfenced one.
    6. Be sure not to consume so much alcohol that your level of alertness is affected.
    7. Do not leave any food /leftovers /water / garbage open and out/ within reach around the camp-especially at night.
    8. Do not store food/cooking utensils in your tent where their odor might attract unwanted attention from predators.
    9. Pack everything into your vehicle/trailer overnight. The animals might wreck anything left in the open.
    10. Do not poach another mans site booked a year in advance.
    11. Do not be a chop and feed the wild animals.
    12. Teach your kids camping etiquette, common sense, courtesy, respect towards fellow campers and the environment from a very young age whether in fenced formal campsites or unfenced campsites.
    13. Teach them to be vigilant for themselves. Buy basic snake, scorpion and mammal identification guides, show them spoor of animals and insects in the sand and let them try to identify those.
    14. Make sure that they understand that they must not run and scream as this catches the attention of predators both during daylight and nighttime hours.
    15. Set a boundary for as far they are allowed away from the car and the vehicle, let them move and explore with in that boundary (obviously while you keep watch on them and the surroundings), don't keep them hidden behind a shade cloth wall the whole time, let them dig holes, bury themselves in the sand, climb a tree! Keep them very quiet and close at night fall.
    16. Bones, bottles, cans, bottle tops, foil do not burn! Don't try and burn them in the left overs of the fire and expect others to clean it.
    17. If you cannot stand the long drop or if there is none and you have to dig your own toilet hole, dig it far from the campsite and dig it deep.
    18. Clear your ashes out each night of the braai and use that to cover the day's "business". The luke warm ashes are also very useful to curb the smell from the long drop.
    19. Try not to sleep against the side walls of your ground tent (canvas).
    20. Be careful when collapsing your tent and folding ground sheets. Scorpions, spiders or snakes could surprise you, always use gloves.
    21. Make noise when leaving tent early in the morning as not to surprise predators in camp.
    22. Always cover the gauze door of the tent with the canvas door at night, and only open canvas over the gauze windows.
    23. Park your car in front of the tent and keep unlocked, you can also use the remote to active the alarm from inside the tent if required.
    24. Try to identify new animal tracks the next morning in camp, as a early warning sign for nights to follow.
    25. In elephant areas it is unwise to carry fresh fruit, especially citrus. They have been known to dismantle a tent or even a vehicle if they scent this delicacy.
    26. Do not camp under trees with ripe fruit or seed pods as these might well attract feeding elephants.
    27. If elephant enter the campsite then just carefully move away without startling them. We usually just retreat to the far side of the vehicle.
    28. Do not camp on/near established game or hippo trails as this might lead to dangerous or disturbed nights.
    29. In setting up camp do not block wildlife access to waterholes.
    30. When setting up camp be sure not to set up under a tree where baboons roost at night. The evidence will be on the ground in the form of their pungent feces. You do not want this all over your tent.
    31. If there are rustic ablutions approach them carefully, in some areas lions love to lie up there in the cool shade.
    32. When harvesting water from a river or water source with crocodiles use a bucket with a longish rope to avoid approaching too close to the water's edge.
    33. Give someone your itinerary. This should be given to someone “at home", who is contactable at all times. Maybe a good idea to post your itinerary on the forum as well for emergency cases. You could also leave a note on your daily planned routes at your camp site where it will be easily seen.
    34. We prefer to use minimal lights in camp in order to preserve our night vision. A brightly lit up camp leaves you isolated within your circle of bright light, blissfully unaware of what might be present just beyond your blinded vision.
    35. If you are really nervous a good idea is to place lanterns/soft lights with gentle light in strategic areas surrounding the outskirts of the campsite to increase your field of vision.
    36. Take a strong torch or spotlight to scan your surroundings if there are any unexplained noises or when answering a call of nature. The eye glint of wild animals shows up very clearly in torchlight.
    37. If one of you has to answer a call of nature during the night it is best if the one accompanies the other with a bright torch to keep a lookout. Some prefer to take some sort of sealable container to urinate into, with them into the tent at night. Broad-necked plastic bottles with a screw cap work best.
    38. If lions do enter your camp lie as still as possible in your tent without speaking and avoid sitting up and allowing them to see your silhouette. They can scent you but regard the tent as a solid structure and do not perceive how flimsy it is. You do not want to attract undue attention or fuel their inherent inquisitiveness or make them more mischievous. If you are still up and about take refuge in your nearby vehicle.
    39. Hyena will often be seen in the flickering light of the fire. There is no need to scramble for shelter, they are cowardly but have rarely been known to attack the unwary, they are great opportunists. One can usually just chase them off to a safe distance.
    40. Some leave the vehicle bonnet up to discourage predators climbing up onto the vehicle. And keep rodents of the electric wiring.
    41. If a ground tent is used it should be of the more sturdy canvas ones rather than the “plastic” types and should not have too much exposed gauze on the door and windows.
    42. Habituated vervet monkeys and baboons can be a great nuisance in camp and will quickly help themselves to any supplies left lying around or if the vehicle doors are open. I carry a catapult for these animals and just aiming at them is usually enough for them to flee.
    43. Do not bury your garbage as hyenas will inevitably dig it up leaving a mess. Take all you garbage out with you if there are not secure, animal-proof garbage bins.
    44. If traveling and camping in remote areas with no mobile phone coverage, consider carrying a satellite phone. Compile a list of relevant emergency telephone numbers, particularly local ones. Obtain the phone number and emergency number at the entrance gate.
    45. Keep your tent zipped up at all times. This will prevent nasties such as rodents, snakes and particularly mosquitoes from entering.
    46. It is probably wise not to put your meat onto the fire if you know there are predators in the vicinity. Remember, we do not feed wild animals!
    47. Make sure someone else in your vehicle/group know how to operate your vehicle, recovery gear, satphone, maps/GPS
    48. When travelling in a group exchange spare keys. Will safe lots of hassle in the event of loss.
    49. Inform your fellow travelers if you have special medical needs or allergies in case of emergencies (wear a medi braclet in severe cases)
    50. I tape a small plastic bag (like a little bank coin bag) with a white PVA background and a red cross on it which is clearly marked "Med Info" to the windscreen ie a prominent position. Inside are the medical instructions.
    51. UNDERSTAND that YOU and your VEHICLE have limitations -thinking that you do not, well, that is just first one of them.
    52. KNOW what those limitations are and act or process decisions based on those limitations erring on the side of caution.

    If you have a major snorer in the group make him sleep on the far outer perimeter, an early warning system so to speak - never under any circumstances get up and check why the snoring stopped, it could be Leo or a grumpy wife who finally put the poor bugger out of his misery - and you're next
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  4. #43
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    Default Re: Unfenced camp rules

    As youngsters we used to talk of light snoring whilst sleeping as 'cutting wood'
    (eg ' Im going to cut some wood ' would mean Im going for a sleep ...)
    ... and this noise can actually be very similar to the noise leopards sometimes make
    whilst casually prowling around ...

    ... just saying ...
    Last edited by BushNomad; 2018/02/08 at 06:42 PM.
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  6. #44
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    Default Re: Unfenced camp rules

    Quote Originally Posted by Oreo View Post
    Unfenced camp guidelines / tips:

    1. Make sure you have plenty of drinking water.
    2. Always leave the vehicle doors unlocked in camp in case you suddenly need to seek refuge from a potentially dangerous animal visitor.
    3. Leave the vehicle seats uncluttered so that you can enter rapidly.
    4. When setting up camp plan so that you feel more secure. Park the vehicle close to the tent and sit at night with the campfire in front of you and the vehicle screening your back.
    5. Do not fall asleep in your chair in camp, especially an unfenced one.
    6. Be sure not to consume so much alcohol that your level of alertness is affected.
    7. Do not leave any food /leftovers /water / garbage open and out/ within reach around the camp-especially at night.
    8. Do not store food/cooking utensils in your tent where their odor might attract unwanted attention from predators.
    9. Pack everything into your vehicle/trailer overnight. The animals might wreck anything left in the open.
    10. Do not poach another mans site booked a year in advance.
    11. Do not be a chop and feed the wild animals.
    12. Teach your kids camping etiquette, common sense, courtesy, respect towards fellow campers and the environment from a very young age whether in fenced formal campsites or unfenced campsites.
    13. Teach them to be vigilant for themselves. Buy basic snake, scorpion and mammal identification guides, show them spoor of animals and insects in the sand and let them try to identify those.
    14. Make sure that they understand that they must not run and scream as this catches the attention of predators both during daylight and nighttime hours.
    15. Set a boundary for as far they are allowed away from the car and the vehicle, let them move and explore with in that boundary (obviously while you keep watch on them and the surroundings), don't keep them hidden behind a shade cloth wall the whole time, let them dig holes, bury themselves in the sand, climb a tree! Keep them very quiet and close at night fall.
    16. Bones, bottles, cans, bottle tops, foil do not burn! Don't try and burn them in the left overs of the fire and expect others to clean it.
    17. If you cannot stand the long drop or if there is none and you have to dig your own toilet hole, dig it far from the campsite and dig it deep.
    18. Clear your ashes out each night of the braai and use that to cover the day's "business". The luke warm ashes are also very useful to curb the smell from the long drop.
    19. Try not to sleep against the side walls of your ground tent (canvas).
    20. Be careful when collapsing your tent and folding ground sheets. Scorpions, spiders or snakes could surprise you, always use gloves.
    21. Make noise when leaving tent early in the morning as not to surprise predators in camp.
    22. Always cover the gauze door of the tent with the canvas door at night, and only open canvas over the gauze windows.
    23. Park your car in front of the tent and keep unlocked, you can also use the remote to active the alarm from inside the tent if required.
    24. Try to identify new animal tracks the next morning in camp, as a early warning sign for nights to follow.
    25. In elephant areas it is unwise to carry fresh fruit, especially citrus. They have been known to dismantle a tent or even a vehicle if they scent this delicacy.
    26. Do not camp under trees with ripe fruit or seed pods as these might well attract feeding elephants.
    27. If elephant enter the campsite then just carefully move away without startling them. We usually just retreat to the far side of the vehicle.
    28. Do not camp on/near established game or hippo trails as this might lead to dangerous or disturbed nights.
    29. In setting up camp do not block wildlife access to waterholes.
    30. When setting up camp be sure not to set up under a tree where baboons roost at night. The evidence will be on the ground in the form of their pungent feces. You do not want this all over your tent.
    31. If there are rustic ablutions approach them carefully, in some areas lions love to lie up there in the cool shade.
    32. When harvesting water from a river or water source with crocodiles use a bucket with a longish rope to avoid approaching too close to the water's edge.
    33. Give someone your itinerary. This should be given to someone “at home", who is contactable at all times. Maybe a good idea to post your itinerary on the forum as well for emergency cases. You could also leave a note on your daily planned routes at your camp site where it will be easily seen.
    34. We prefer to use minimal lights in camp in order to preserve our night vision. A brightly lit up camp leaves you isolated within your circle of bright light, blissfully unaware of what might be present just beyond your blinded vision.
    35. If you are really nervous a good idea is to place lanterns/soft lights with gentle light in strategic areas surrounding the outskirts of the campsite to increase your field of vision.
    36. Take a strong torch or spotlight to scan your surroundings if there are any unexplained noises or when answering a call of nature. The eye glint of wild animals shows up very clearly in torchlight.
    37. If one of you has to answer a call of nature during the night it is best if the one accompanies the other with a bright torch to keep a lookout. Some prefer to take some sort of sealable container to urinate into, with them into the tent at night. Broad-necked plastic bottles with a screw cap work best.
    38. If lions do enter your camp lie as still as possible in your tent without speaking and avoid sitting up and allowing them to see your silhouette. They can scent you but regard the tent as a solid structure and do not perceive how flimsy it is. You do not want to attract undue attention or fuel their inherent inquisitiveness or make them more mischievous. If you are still up and about take refuge in your nearby vehicle.
    39. Hyena will often be seen in the flickering light of the fire. There is no need to scramble for shelter, they are cowardly but have rarely been known to attack the unwary, they are great opportunists. One can usually just chase them off to a safe distance.
    40. Some leave the vehicle bonnet up to discourage predators climbing up onto the vehicle. And keep rodents of the electric wiring.
    41. If a ground tent is used it should be of the more sturdy canvas ones rather than the “plastic” types and should not have too much exposed gauze on the door and windows.
    42. Habituated vervet monkeys and baboons can be a great nuisance in camp and will quickly help themselves to any supplies left lying around or if the vehicle doors are open. I carry a catapult for these animals and just aiming at them is usually enough for them to flee.
    43. Do not bury your garbage as hyenas will inevitably dig it up leaving a mess. Take all you garbage out with you if there are not secure, animal-proof garbage bins.
    44. If traveling and camping in remote areas with no mobile phone coverage, consider carrying a satellite phone. Compile a list of relevant emergency telephone numbers, particularly local ones. Obtain the phone number and emergency number at the entrance gate.
    45. Keep your tent zipped up at all times. This will prevent nasties such as rodents, snakes and particularly mosquitoes from entering.
    46. It is probably wise not to put your meat onto the fire if you know there are predators in the vicinity. Remember, we do not feed wild animals!
    47. Make sure someone else in your vehicle/group know how to operate your vehicle, recovery gear, satphone, maps/GPS
    48. When travelling in a group exchange spare keys. Will safe lots of hassle in the event of loss.
    49. Inform your fellow travelers if you have special medical needs or allergies in case of emergencies (wear a medi braclet in severe cases)
    50. I tape a small plastic bag (like a little bank coin bag) with a white PVA background and a red cross on it which is clearly marked "Med Info" to the windscreen ie a prominent position. Inside are the medical instructions.
    51. UNDERSTAND that YOU and your VEHICLE have limitations -thinking that you do not, well, that is just first one of them.
    52. KNOW what those limitations are and act or process decisions based on those limitations erring on the side of caution.

    If you have a major snorer in the group make him sleep on the far outer perimeter, an early warning system so to speak - never under any circumstances get up and check why the snoring stopped, it could be Leo or a grumpy wife who finally put the poor bugger out of his misery - and you're next
    If you are having a problem with poor celphone reception, rather send a short message, and keep pressing send. It usually gets through where a phone call will not.
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  7. #45
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    Default Re: Unfenced camp rules

    I have read all the above , and looks like you got it all covered .Some of the points are irrelevant to unfenced camping , but I understand the point 😂 I say , it depends on the areas you choose to camp in .These differ greatly , so adapt to your area and check with the staff what are the so called dangers in and around your camp site .Maybe somebody mentioned , check with other campers who got there before you what they have experienced .Also that theory with a long rope and a bucket , works for me as well .Last point , if by any chance you do get surprised by what ever , do not panic .I have been trapped many times by various animals at night and even during the day pumping water , but I am still here to tell the tale 😎😎

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  9. #46
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    Default Re: Unfenced camp rules

    Very helpful thread. Any advice for solo travellers eg how do you take a shower without being stalked by some big cat etc. Is it safe to have a nice rest on your camp chair enjoying a good book or must you always be looking behind your shoulders?

  10. #47
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    Default Re: Unfenced camp rules

    Great thread with sound advice!

    Maybe it would be nice to have another list of all the stupid things we have done in the past, ignoring all this advice and somehow still surviving.....

    I'll give it a try:
    - Sleeping in the open in the Okavango without a tent. Just sleeping bag next to the fire.
    - Swimming in open places in the Okavango. The guide said there wouldn't be too many crocs.
    - Sitting outside in the dark at a Chobe campsite with a camera and flash, hoping to get a good shot of a hyena.
    - Going out at night in Chobe to use the "toilet" but because my bowels rumbled, went very far away into the bush as I didn't want others in the camp to hear me.
    - Sleeping in an open tent in Kruger. Being woken by a sniffing animal. When I switched on my torch, saw a hyena's face directly above me!
    - Driving onto a wet track in the Magadikgadi. Luckily we already got stuck in a few 100 meters and decided to return after two hours of digging.
    - Driving through Namibia in a Hilux with faulty fuel-pump. Standing in Etosha unable to start when a herd of elephant came close. They passed us on both sides. The big matriarch dragging her trunk over the hood of the car.

    All the things above happened about 15-20 years ago. So I hope I would be smarter by now. At least I have been very much more careful since I have children! Took them to Botswana for the first time, two years ago.

    But still, two years ago in Chobe I walked to the showers in pitch dark to see why my wife and daughter weren't returning after it had already gotten dark. Only to get the scare of my life as I suddenly had a huge elephant blocking my way. Couldn't even see it from a few meters away, only saw it when I switched on the torch to check what was making that noise. Went back to the campsite to take a big burning log from the fire and use that swaying it around to "scare off" the elephant. I guess the adrenaline to "rescue" my wife and daughter took over from common sense.....
    Last edited by Wildpicture; 2018/08/10 at 05:26 PM. Reason: Spelling
    Regards,
    Hans

    http://www.wildpicture.com/

    Overland trips with rented 4x4's in South Africa, Botswana, Nambia, Zimbabwe, Zambia
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  11. #48
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    Default Re: Unfenced camp rules

    Great thread! What is obvious to some people is not always to others. Helps you plan your trip better especially when you cant just
    go to your bedroom to grab something!
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  12. #49
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    Default Re: Unfenced camp rules

    Wildpicture, what a good list of don't-s.
    I will ad not to bump your butt on the hooter while trying to film a baby elephant and his mother right next to your car at 3rd brdge.
    And do not walk on shoes with thin soles when there are thorns around.

  13. #50
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    Default Re: Unfenced camp rules

    Quote Originally Posted by Hendrikk View Post
    And do not walk on shoes with thin soles when there are thorns around.
    I thought all Afrikaners walked barefoot. 8)
    Regards,
    Hans

    http://www.wildpicture.com/

    Overland trips with rented 4x4's in South Africa, Botswana, Nambia, Zimbabwe, Zambia
    (Toyota Hilux DC, Landrover Defender 110)
    1999-2005 Suzuki Jimny JLX 4x4
    2016- Suzuki Jimny JLX 4x4

  14. #51
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    Default Re: Unfenced camp rules

    Hahaha! Where do you think Ede is?

  15. #52
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    Default Re: Unfenced camp rules

    Great thread... My addition to this is using gas lanterns at night in unfenced camps ... While the lighting is great the noise they make can impair your hearing considerably, LEDs seem to have worked the best for me...

  16. #53
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    Default Re: Unfenced camp rules

    Quote Originally Posted by Hendrikk View Post
    Hahaha! Where do you think Ede is?
    Hadn't seen that.
    Regards,
    Hans

    http://www.wildpicture.com/

    Overland trips with rented 4x4's in South Africa, Botswana, Nambia, Zimbabwe, Zambia
    (Toyota Hilux DC, Landrover Defender 110)
    1999-2005 Suzuki Jimny JLX 4x4
    2016- Suzuki Jimny JLX 4x4

  17. #54
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    Default Re: Unfenced camp rules

    Quote Originally Posted by Oreo View Post
    Unfenced camp guidelines / tips:

    1. Make sure you have plenty of drinking water.
    2. Always leave the vehicle doors unlocked in camp in case you suddenly need to seek refuge from a potentially dangerous animal visitor.
    3. Leave the vehicle seats uncluttered so that you can enter rapidly.
    4. When setting up camp plan so that you feel more secure. Park the vehicle close to the tent and sit at night with the campfire in front of you and the vehicle screening your back.
    5. Do not fall asleep in your chair in camp, especially an unfenced one.
    6. Be sure not to consume so much alcohol that your level of alertness is affected.
    7. Do not leave any food /leftovers /water / garbage open and out/ within reach around the camp-especially at night.
    8. Do not store food/cooking utensils in your tent where their odor might attract unwanted attention from predators.
    9. Pack everything into your vehicle/trailer overnight. The animals might wreck anything left in the open.
    10. Do not poach another mans site booked a year in advance.
    11. Do not be a chop and feed the wild animals.
    12. Teach your kids camping etiquette, common sense, courtesy, respect towards fellow campers and the environment from a very young age whether in fenced formal campsites or unfenced campsites.
    13. Teach them to be vigilant for themselves. Buy basic snake, scorpion and mammal identification guides, show them spoor of animals and insects in the sand and let them try to identify those.
    14. Make sure that they understand that they must not run and scream as this catches the attention of predators both during daylight and nighttime hours.
    15. Set a boundary for as far they are allowed away from the car and the vehicle, let them move and explore with in that boundary (obviously while you keep watch on them and the surroundings), don't keep them hidden behind a shade cloth wall the whole time, let them dig holes, bury themselves in the sand, climb a tree! Keep them very quiet and close at night fall.
    16. Bones, bottles, cans, bottle tops, foil do not burn! Don't try and burn them in the left overs of the fire and expect others to clean it.
    17. If you cannot stand the long drop or if there is none and you have to dig your own toilet hole, dig it far from the campsite and dig it deep.
    18. Clear your ashes out each night of the braai and use that to cover the day's "business". The luke warm ashes are also very useful to curb the smell from the long drop.
    19. Try not to sleep against the side walls of your ground tent (canvas).
    20. Be careful when collapsing your tent and folding ground sheets. Scorpions, spiders or snakes could surprise you, always use gloves.
    21. Make noise when leaving tent early in the morning as not to surprise predators in camp.
    22. Always cover the gauze door of the tent with the canvas door at night, and only open canvas over the gauze windows.
    23. Park your car in front of the tent and keep unlocked, you can also use the remote to active the alarm from inside the tent if required.
    24. Try to identify new animal tracks the next morning in camp, as a early warning sign for nights to follow.
    25. In elephant areas it is unwise to carry fresh fruit, especially citrus. They have been known to dismantle a tent or even a vehicle if they scent this delicacy.
    26. Do not camp under trees with ripe fruit or seed pods as these might well attract feeding elephants.
    27. If elephant enter the campsite then just carefully move away without startling them. We usually just retreat to the far side of the vehicle.
    28. Do not camp on/near established game or hippo trails as this might lead to dangerous or disturbed nights.
    29. In setting up camp do not block wildlife access to waterholes.
    30. When setting up camp be sure not to set up under a tree where baboons roost at night. The evidence will be on the ground in the form of their pungent feces. You do not want this all over your tent.
    31. If there are rustic ablutions approach them carefully, in some areas lions love to lie up there in the cool shade.
    32. When harvesting water from a river or water source with crocodiles use a bucket with a longish rope to avoid approaching too close to the water's edge.
    33. Give someone your itinerary. This should be given to someone “at home", who is contactable at all times. Maybe a good idea to post your itinerary on the forum as well for emergency cases. You could also leave a note on your daily planned routes at your camp site where it will be easily seen.
    34. We prefer to use minimal lights in camp in order to preserve our night vision. A brightly lit up camp leaves you isolated within your circle of bright light, blissfully unaware of what might be present just beyond your blinded vision.
    35. If you are really nervous a good idea is to place lanterns/soft lights with gentle light in strategic areas surrounding the outskirts of the campsite to increase your field of vision.
    36. Take a strong torch or spotlight to scan your surroundings if there are any unexplained noises or when answering a call of nature. The eye glint of wild animals shows up very clearly in torchlight.
    37. If one of you has to answer a call of nature during the night it is best if the one accompanies the other with a bright torch to keep a lookout. Some prefer to take some sort of sealable container to urinate into, with them into the tent at night. Broad-necked plastic bottles with a screw cap work best.
    38. If lions do enter your camp lie as still as possible in your tent without speaking and avoid sitting up and allowing them to see your silhouette. They can scent you but regard the tent as a solid structure and do not perceive how flimsy it is. You do not want to attract undue attention or fuel their inherent inquisitiveness or make them more mischievous. If you are still up and about take refuge in your nearby vehicle.
    39. Hyena will often be seen in the flickering light of the fire. There is no need to scramble for shelter, they are cowardly but have rarely been known to attack the unwary, they are great opportunists. One can usually just chase them off to a safe distance.
    40. Some leave the vehicle bonnet up to discourage predators climbing up onto the vehicle. And keep rodents of the electric wiring.
    41. If a ground tent is used it should be of the more sturdy canvas ones rather than the “plastic” types and should not have too much exposed gauze on the door and windows.
    42. Habituated vervet monkeys and baboons can be a great nuisance in camp and will quickly help themselves to any supplies left lying around or if the vehicle doors are open. I carry a catapult for these animals and just aiming at them is usually enough for them to flee.
    43. Do not bury your garbage as hyenas will inevitably dig it up leaving a mess. Take all you garbage out with you if there are not secure, animal-proof garbage bins.
    44. If traveling and camping in remote areas with no mobile phone coverage, consider carrying a satellite phone. Compile a list of relevant emergency telephone numbers, particularly local ones. Obtain the phone number and emergency number at the entrance gate.
    45. Keep your tent zipped up at all times. This will prevent nasties such as rodents, snakes and particularly mosquitoes from entering.
    46. It is probably wise not to put your meat onto the fire if you know there are predators in the vicinity. Remember, we do not feed wild animals!
    47. Make sure someone else in your vehicle/group know how to operate your vehicle, recovery gear, satphone, maps/GPS
    48. When travelling in a group exchange spare keys. Will safe lots of hassle in the event of loss.
    49. Inform your fellow travelers if you have special medical needs or allergies in case of emergencies (wear a medi braclet in severe cases)
    50. I tape a small plastic bag (like a little bank coin bag) with a white PVA background and a red cross on it which is clearly marked "Med Info" to the windscreen ie a prominent position. Inside are the medical instructions.
    51. UNDERSTAND that YOU and your VEHICLE have limitations -thinking that you do not, well, that is just first one of them.
    52. KNOW what those limitations are and act or process decisions based on those limitations erring on the side of caution.
    53. bare in mind that we are the intrudors, not the Wildlife.

    If you have a major snorer in the group make him sleep on the far outer perimeter, an early warning system so to speak - never under any circumstances get up and check why the snoring stopped, it could be Leo or a grumpy wife who finally put the poor bugger out of his misery - and you're next

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